Database types – What is, definition and concept | 2022

A database is a collection of structured data that can be stored digitally or physically.

In other words, it is a set of organized and/or classified data that can be processed both on a computer device (PC, mobile, etc.) and on a physical level (books and paper records).

Therefore, a database will be responsible not only for storing data, but also for connecting them to each other. This connection will be made in a logical way to reach conclusions and useful tasks.

Database classes

Although there is no official or determined classification at all levels, there are certain patterns and characteristics. Then the database types are:

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  • Whether digital or physical. In other words, if they are computerized or on paper. Next, more types of databases will be exposed, but oriented to the digital typology.
  • Relational or not. It is about differentiating between very specific data and data that do not have completely defined limits. That is, a relational database will have identifiable and traceable data between several data sets that have information in common. In contrast, the so-called non-relational databases will not have this ability to cross data. This is because the information will not be under any label or any type of identifier. An example would be the age of a person, and the love he has for his country. On the one hand, the age can be specified numerically in various databases, such as the identity card or DNI, Treasury, academic, health records, etc. On the other hand, the second set of data (love for the country) is more complex to tabulate, since the range or way of evaluating it is at the mercy of the creator of the survey or study.
  • Are hosted in the cloud or locally. This aspect is simpler, since it is about distinguishing between the data that is hosted on a remote server, or if, instead, we have it stored on a server in our same location.
  • Whether dynamic or static. On the one hand, they are dynamic databases that can change and evolve as they are programmed to do so. On the other hand, static databases, given their rigidity, could not change the way they work and store data.
  • Its object orientation or not. This differentiation of databases is key in the digital age in which we are immersed. It is about discerning if the combination of data forms an object in itself, that is, the data goes from being simple interpretable information to parameters of an «evolved data» which would be called an object. An example could be a Pokémon. Although the digital creature has parameters of attack, defense and even a certain personality, the set of these parameters “gives it life”. Therefore, our example stages an object-oriented data set, the Pokémon. Otherwise, a non-object-oriented database tries to show a simple tabulated sequence of data, such as statistical databases, whether football, voting intentions, etc.
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It should be noted that the different types of databases explained are not mutually exclusive, so the same database can be in more than one type at the same time.

examples

According to the types of databases mentioned above, we are going to classify the following databases:

  • Civil registration.
  • Be part of a social network.
  • Belong to a virtual community with an avatar in the metaverse.

In the first case, the civil registry may be digital and/or physical. Then, it must be relational and may or may not be in the cloud; besides being a static database to some extent, and not object oriented.

In the second example, social media profiles will be mostly digital, non-relational, dynamic, cloud-based, and non-object-oriented databases.

In the third and last case, we will find data of a digital, relational, cloud, dynamic nature and, this time, object-oriented. The object will be our avatar, which we will have provided with certain data and parameters configured on the web3.

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